ag竞咪厅

保护与修复常识

作者: 来源:ag竞咪厅_ag竞咪游戏下载|首页

Ⅰ.认识古籍

伟大的中华民族有着几千年的优秀文化,古籍文献是它们不可或缺的载体。随着社会的发展,书籍的装帧形式发生了很大的改变。今天,对于古籍,ag竞咪厅已经有些陌生。在新的世纪,回顾经典,让ag竞咪厅重新走进它们,重温它们昔日的风采与荣耀。


 1.古籍的装帧形式

JIQIANNIANDECHUANTONGWENHUAWEIagJINGMITINGLIUXIALEFENGFUDEDIANJIWENXIAN,SUIZHECHAODAIDEBIANQIAN,TAMENDEZHUANGZHENXINGSHIYEFASHENGLEBIANHUA。XIANJINBAOLIUXIALAIDEGUJIYOUJUANZHOUZHUANG、FANJIAZHUANG、LONGLINZHUANG、XUANFENGZHUANG、JINGZHEZHUANG、HUDIEZHUANG、BAOBEIZHUANG、XIANZHUANG、MAOZHUANGYIJIJINXIANGYUDENG。XIAMIANJIUDAJIACHANGJIANDEGUJIDEJIZHONGZHUANGZHENXINGSHIZUOYIGEJIANDANJIESHAO。

卷轴装: 亦称“卷子装”。通行于东汉到唐代。它是纸本书最早的形式,直接承接了帛书的形制。其特点是将书叶按顺序粘成一长幅后,末端粘接木制或其它材质的圆轴,首端粘接细木杆,然后以尾为轴心向前卷收形成一束。

经折装: 这种装帧的特点是将书叶按顺序粘成长幅形成卷子后,再按一定的尺寸左右反复折叠成册,再粘接封面、封底。这种装帧源于折叠佛教经典,故得此名。因奏折也用这种形式,故后来也叫“折子本”。

线装: 线装是书籍册页制度的晚期形式,从包背装演化而来,是中国古籍装帧的最后形式。明代中叶出现,清代最为盛行,一直沿用至今。它是将写印好的书叶以无字的一面对折,折边朝左,余幅朝右形成书脊,加装书皮,然后用线把书叶连同书皮一起装订成册,订线露在外面。


 2.古籍书册各部位名称

ag竞咪厅JUANZHOUZHUANGZHIHOUCHUXIANDEGEZHONGSHUYEZHEDIEDEZHUANGZHENXINGSHIFANCHENGWEICEZHUANGSHUJI。YOUYAOYOUJINGZHEZHUANG、HUDIEZHUANG、BAOBEIZHUANGHEXIANZHUANG。YICESHUYOUSHUYI(PI)、SHUQIAN、FUYE(HUYE)、FENGMIAN、SHUYEDENGBUFENZUCHENG,MEICESHUYOUYOUSHUTOU(SHOU)、SHUJIAO、SHUGEN、SHUKOU、SHUNAO、SHUBEI、SHUJIAODENGBUWEIZUCHENG。JIANXIATUYI。

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TU1

 3.古籍书叶各部分名称

ag竞咪厅BANSHI,JIDIAOBANHUOHUOZIYINSHUABANMIANANPAIDEYANGSHI。GUJISHUYEDEBANSHIZIWUDAI、SONGCHAOYILAIYIJINGYOULEBIJIAOGUDINGDESHIYANG。JIANXIATUER。

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TU2

4.古籍的装具

ag竞咪厅HENDUOZHIZUOKAOJIUDEGUJI,WEILEGENGHAODECUNFANG,CHULEWEITAMENJIANZAOTIAOJIANLIANGHAODESHUKU,PEIZHIMINGGUIFANGZHUMUCAIDESHUJU,JINGCHANGYEJITAMENLIANGSHENDINGZHIHETIDE“WAIYI”——ZHI、HAN、TAO、JIABANDENG。GUJIDEZHUANGJUYOUHENDUOZHONG,CONGXINGSHISHANGFEN,YOUSHUZHI、SHUHAN、SHUTAO、JIABAN、SHUJUDENG;CONGCAIZHISHANGFEN,YOUSHIZHI、MUZHI、SIZHIPINLEI、MIANLEIDENG。JUTIDEZHONGLEIXINGSHIGENGSHIBIANHUADUOYANG,LINLANGMANMU。ZHIZUOKAOJIUDEZHUANGJUBENSHENJIUSHIYIJIANJINGMEIDEYISHUPIN。XIANCUNGUANZANGDEZHUANGJUJIYOUGUJIZANGPINZIDAIDE,NIANDAIJIUYUAN,YEYOUHOULAI(XIANDAI)ZHONGXINZHUANGPEIDE。JIANTUSAN。

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TU3: ab: ZHIZUOKAOJIUDESHUJU

ag竞咪厅cdef:JINGMEIDESHUHESHUTAO

 

Ⅱ、古籍的损毁

1.历史上古籍散亡的灾难举例。

GUJICHANSHENGYIHOU,JIUYINZHONGZHONGYUANYINBUDUANLIUSANHUOYINMIE。SHUJIDESANWANGSHIJIAN——“SHUE”,ZIGUJIZAIBUJUE。LIDAITONGZHIZHECHUYUZHENGZHIXUYAO,WANGWANGJINZHIHUOFENHUIYIBUFENDUIZIJIBULIDEZHUSHU,ZAOCHENGTUSHUDEZHONGDASUNSHI。CHAODAIGENGTIDEZHANLUANDUOZAOCHENGDIANJIDEDALIANGSANWANG。HUOZHUZHIZAISHIZANGSHUSHIYEDEYOUYIDADI。JUBUWANQUANTONGJI,JINJINGEHONGZHIJINDAIDESIJIAZANGSHU,JIUYOU81JIAHUIYUHUOZAI。SHUIHAIWANGWANGTURUQILAI,LINGZANGSHUZHECUBUJIFANG。SHUZAOSHUIHAI,BUSHIPIAOSHI,JIUSHINANYIFUYUAN。JUJINRENTONGJI,ZISONGZHIJINDAIYOU23JIASIZANGHUIYUSHUIZAI。CHONGZHUSHUNIEDUISHUJIDESUNHAIPOWEIYANZHONG。MINGZHENGDEHOU,SILIJIANJINGCHANGSUOZANGLEICHAOMISHUDIANJI,DUOBEITOUMAIYUSHUSI。KUZHONGZHISHU,YOUDECHONGZHURUSHAIWANG,YOUDECHENMEIRUNIBAN。QINGGUANGXUSHIJIUNIAN(1893),HANLINYUANFENGLINGQINGCHAZANGSHU,《SIKUQUANSHU》DIBENJINCUN1000YUZHONG,CHONGZHU、CANQUEXIANXIANGYANZHONG。QINGDAIXUEZHEWANGSHIZHENZANGSHU,SHENHOUYECHUXIAN“BANBAOSHUDU”DECANZHUANG。QIEZEITOUSHU,ZESHIYOUBEIERLAI,ZHIXUANXIJIANSHANBEN,YIDANFASHENGTOUDAO,BIANSHIZANGSHUYUANQIDASHANG。NINGBOTIANYIGEZAIXINHAIGEMINGSHIQIHE1914NIANLIANGZAOQIEZEITOUQIE,SUNSHILEDAPIZHENGUIZANGSHU,CHUMINGDAIDIFANGZHIHEDENGKELUWAI,ZANGSHUJINGHUASUOSHENGWUJI。XIAMIANSHILISHISHANGJICIDAXINGSHUJIZAINANDEJULI。                           

 

SHIHUANGFENSHU

QINGUOZIXIAOGONGQIYISHIXINGJINSHUZHENGCE。SHANGYANGHEHANFEIZIDOUZHUZHANGJINCHIYUGENGZHAN、FALINGWUGUANZHISHU。ZHIQINSHIHUANG,FENHUI“《SHI》、《SHU》、BAIJIAYU”,KEBAOCUN“YIYAO、BUSHI、ZHONGSHUZHISHU。”DUIQINGUANFUZANGSHUYINGXIANGBUDA。GUZHEIYIHAOJIEBINGWEIWANQUANZHONGDUANWENXIANDEDIANZANGCHUANTONG。

WANGMANGZHIZAI

ag竞咪厅XIHANGENGSHINIANJIAN,WANGMANGBAISI,WEIYANGGONGJIQIDIANJIDABUFENHUI。JIANWUYUANNIAN(25)XIA,CHIMEIJUNGONGXIANZHANGAN,FENSHAOGONGSHI,JILEILE200DUONIANDEDIANZHANGWENWU,SAODIYIJIN。

XIAOXIANYIDOU

DONGHANCHUPINGYUANNIAN(190),DONGZHUOXIEHANXIANDICONGLUOYANGQIANZHANGAN,《HOUHANSHU·RULINCHUAN》ZAI“YIDOUZHIJI,LIMINRAOLUAN,ZIPIYONG、DONGGUAN、LANTAI、SHISHI、XUANMING、HONGDOUZHUZANGDIANCEWENZHANG,JINGGONGPOUSAN……JIWANGYUNSUOSHOUERXIZHE,CAIQISHIYUCHENG”。ERQIBANDAO“FUQIQIBANYI”。YUNZHIZHANGANZHE,YOUYINJIUBUZHENGDOU,“FUCEDIANJILVEWUSUOYI”。

LIUSHIPINGLING

XIJINYONGJIACHUNIAN,SHILIUGUOHANLIUCONG、SHILELVJUNYUXIJINZHENGQUANDENGZHENGZHAN,YANGJIDIANJI。WUNIAN(311),LIUCONGGONGRULUOYANG,FENSHAODOUCHENG,HOUYOUGONGRUDOUCHENG,WEIJINGUANFUZANGSHUHUAWEIWUYOU。

TAIWUMIEFO

ag竞咪厅BEIWEITAIPINGZHENJUNQINIAN(466),TAIWUDIXIAMIEFOZHAO,“ZHUYOUFUTUXINGXIANGJIHUJING,JIEJIPOFENSHAO,SHAMENWUSHAOZHANGXIKENGZHI”。ZHEISHIWOGUOLISHISHANGDIYICIYIFOJIAODIANJIWEIDUIXIANGDEJINSHUSHIJIAN,DUILIANGJINYILAIYIJINGZHONGZHEN-ZHANGANDEFOJIAOJINGDIANZAOCHENGZHONGCHUANG。

HOUJINGZHILUAN

NANCHAOLIANGDATONGSANNIAN(537),HOUJINGBINGHUOSHAOLUOYANGCHENG,WENHUADIANJIJUNZAOSUNHUI。LIANGTAIQINGERNIAN(548),HOUJINGZHILUAN,DABINGXIJIEJIANKANG(JINNANJING),DONGGONGQIHUO。“TUJISHUBAICHU,FENZHIJIEJIN”。

DAYEFENHUI

ag竞咪厅SUIDAYESHIYINIAN(615),SUIYANGDIXIEDAIDAPIGUANZANGTUSHUJIZHENGUIWENWUXUNXINGJIANGDOU。SHISANNIAN(617),SUIYANGDIZAISIMIANCHUGEZHONGBEISHA,BANYUNDAOJIANGDOUDESHUJISANSHIDAIJIN。

WUDEPIAOMEI

TANGWUDEWUNIAN(622),TANGCHAOPINGDINGLEZHANJULUOYANGDEWANGSHICHONG,BAGUANWENDIANDENGCHUDETUSHUWENWUZHUANGCHUANYUNSONGDAOZHANGAN,TUZHONGCHUANFU,DUOBEIPIAOMEI。

TIANBAOHUIWANG

TANGTIANBAOSHISINIANZHIGUANGDEYUANNIAN(755—763),ANSHIZHILUANSHIZHANGANYIJILUOYANGSHUCIZAOYANG,GUANZANGTUJISHOUDAOKONGQIANSUNSHI。

GUANGMINGZHIZAI

ag竞咪厅TANGGUANGMINGYUANNIANZHIZHONGHEYUANNIAN(880—881),HUANGCHAOQIYIJUNXIANHOUZHANLINGLUOYANG、ZHANGAN,TANGGONGTING、GUANFUZANGSHUDUOHUIYUBINGHUO。

JINGKANGZHICHI

BEISONGJINGKANGYUANNIAN(1126),JINBINGGONGXIANBEISONGSHOUDOUBIANJING,JINLUSONGDOUZANGSHUJIYINBAN,MIGE、SANGUANSHU、TIANXIAZHOUFUDITU、“FUKUXUJIWEIZHIYIKONG”,SIRENSHOUZANGYIZAOSHOUZHONGDAHUISUN。

SHAODINGKUDU

NANSONGSHAODINGYUANNIAN(1228),MENGGUQIBINGNANXIA,NANSONGTUJISUNSHICANZHONG。SHAODINGSINIAN(1231)QIU,LINANJINZHONGSHIHUO,GUANGEZANGSHUBEIHUOYANSHAO,ZHISHUDUOQUE。SHAODINGLIUNIAN(1233),MENGGUBINGQINRUJINDI,GECHUGONGGUANSUOZANG《DAOZANG》,DUOHUIYUBINGHUO,CUNZHELIAOLIAO。

MINGMOBINGZAI

QINGSHUNZHIYUANNIAN(1644),LIZICHENGRUJING,MINGWENYUANGEJIZANGSHUBEIFENHUI。QINGJUNRUGUAN,LIZICHENGLVBINGTUICHUBEIJING,ZONGHUOFAPAO,JIHUIZHUGONGDIAN,HENDUOZANGSHUHUIYUCISHI。QINGBINGNANXIA,GEDIZANGSHUSUNSHICANZHONG。RUXUGUANGQIWANJUANZANGSHUHUIYUBINGHUO;FANGXIWENWANZHOUTUSHU“HUOFENSHUJIN”;QUANZUWANGXIANBEILEISHIZANGSHU,JIANYOUJUKU,BEI“FUZHIYIJU”,“JIAWUYUSHU”。

JIANGYUNLIEYAN

ag竞咪厅JIANGYUNLOUSHIZHUMINGXUEZHEHEZANGSHUJIAQIANQIANYIDEZANGSHULOU。QINGSHUNZHIQINIAN(1650)CHUDONG,QIANJIARENBUSHENDAFANZHUHUO,YINSHAOLEFEIZHI,NIANGCHENGDAHUO,JIANGYUNLOUZANGSHUQUANBUFENHUI。YONGDANGSHIDEBIAOZHUNLAIHENGLIANG,JIANGYUNLOUSUOZANGSHIZHIBAJIUWEIZHENBENSHANBEN,RUOZAIJINTIAN,NEIJIWANJUANTUJIZEQUANBUSHIRENJIANZHENBAOLE。

QIANLONGJINSHU

QINGQIANLONGNIANJIAN(1736—1795),QIANLONGDICAIQUYUJINYUZHENGDESHOUDUAN,GUANGFANCHAJIN“WEIAI”、“BEINI”ZHISHU,FANWEIZHIGUANG,SHULIANGZHIDA,QIANSUOWEIYOU。QIZAIWEI60NIAN,JINHUISHUJIYUE3100YUZHONG、151000DUOBU,XIAOHUISHUBAN80000KUAIYISHANG。

SIKUZHIJIN

QINGXIANFENGCHUNIAN,TAIPINGTIANGUOJUNYUQINGJUNZAIJIANGNANZHENGZHAN,GONGCHENGLVEDI。YANGZHOUDAGUANTANGWENHUIGE、ZHENJIANGJINSHANSIWENZONGGESUOZANG《SIKUQUANSHU》,HUIYUCISHI。

QINLVEHUIQIANG

QINGXIANFENGSHINIAN(1860),YINGFAQINLVEJUNXIJIE、FENSHAOYUANMINGYUAN,WENYUANGE《SIKUQUANSHU》JIZHANGCHUNYUANWEIYUSHUWU《SIKUHUIYAO》BEIHUI。GUANGXUERSHILIUNIAN(1900),BAGUOLIANJUNQINRUBEIJING,HANLINYUANBEIFEN,《YONGLEDADIAN》、《GUJINTUSHUJICHENG》JI《SIKUQUANSHU》DIBENBUFENZAOFENHUI,BUFENBEIBAGUOLIANJUNLVEZOU,LINGXINGJUANZHISANLUOMINJIAN。RIBENDIGUOZHUYIQINHUAQIJIAN,FENHUI、JIELVETUSHUJIDIANJIWUSHU,RU1932NIANSHANGHAIHANFENLOU40WANCEZANGSHUBEIZHAHUISHAODIAO。

 

2.古籍毁损的主要原因及特征。

酸化

SUANHUASHIZHIZHIWENXIANSUNHUAIDEZHUYAOYUANYINZHIYI。ZHUYAOTEZHENGWEIZHIZHANGpHZHIMINGXIANJIANGDI。GUJIZHIZHANGSUANHUADEZHUYAOYUANYINSHIDAQIWURAN。DAQIZHONGDEERYANGHUALIU、DANYANGHUAHEWUDENONGDU,YIJIZHIZHONGMUZHISUDEHANLIANGJUNHUIDUIZHIZHANGSUANHUACHENGDUCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。DIAOYANJIEGUOXIANSHI,MUQIANBAOCUNTIAOJIANZUIHAODEGUOJIATUSHUGUANSHANBENTEZANGSHUJIZHONGDESUANHANLIANGZONGHESHUIPINGYIJINGBIERSHISHIJILIUSHINIANDAITIGAOLE1.7GESHUZHI。ZHIZHANGCONGRUOJIANXING、ZHONGXINGZHUJIANZHUANBIANWEISUANXING,BUFENSHUJIZHIZHANGDEpHZHISHENZHIDADAOLE5.0YIXIA。GENJUSHIYAN,pHZHIZAI5.0YIXIADEWENXIAN,BAOCUNNIANXIANZUIZHANGZHIYOU200NIAN。ZHEIDUIYUBUFENGUJITEZANGLAISHUO,TUOSUANYIJINGCHENGWEIKEBURONGHUANDEGONGZUO。

 

老化

 

4_1.jpg

4_2.jpg

 

GUJISUNHUAIXIANXIANGZHIYI。BIAOXIANTEZHENGDUOYANG,ZHUYAOYOUZHIZHANGYANSEBIANAN、BIANYING;ZHIZHANGCHUXIANHUANGSEBANDIANDENG(JIANTU4.1HE4.2)。ZAOCHENGZHIZHANGLAOHUADEYUANYINJIAOWEIFUZA,GUANGZHAO、WURAN、CHAOSHIDENGYINSUJUNHUIDUIZHIZHANGCHANSHENGBULIANGYINGXIANG。SUIRANLAOHUADEBIAOMIANTEZHENGGEYI,DANHOUGUOQUESHIXIANGTONGDE。YOUYULAOHUA,ZHIZHANGXIANWEIZHUJIANJIANGJIE,SANGSHIJIXIEQIANGDU,ZHIZHIBIANWEIFENMO,HOUGUOXIANGDANGYANZHONG,BIXUYINQIGAODUZHONGSHI。

 

鼠啮

 

4_3.jpg

4_4.jpg

 

 

GUJISUNHUAIXIANXIANGZHIYI,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIZAISHUYESIZHOUZAOCHENGQUESUN,MIANJIDAXIAOBUYI(JIANTU4.3HE4.4)。CIWAI,SHUZHONGDADUOBANYOUSHUNIAOQINSHIZAOCHENGDESHENGMEI、ZHANLIANXIANXIANG,WANGWANGXINGCHENGSHUZHUAN,DUISHUJIZAOCHENGJIAODASHANGHAI。ERKUFANGJIANLOU、QUESHAOZHUANGJU、GUANLISHUIPINGDISHIZAOCHENGSHUNIEDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。

 

虫蛀

 

4_5.jpg

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ag竞咪厅  

ZUICHANGJIANDEGUJISUNHUAIXIANXIANGZHIYI。ZHUYAOSUNHUAITEZHENGWEIGUJICHUXIANYUANXINGHUOQUXIANXINGKONGDONG,DUOSHUCHENGXIANGUANCHUANZHUANG,JIZHUDONGCONGSHUDEFENGMIANGUANCHUANFENGDI(JIANTU4.5HE4.6)。ZHUDONGSHULIANGYUMIDUBUDENG。BEICHONGZHUSHIYANZHONGDEGUJIZHUDONGJIHULIANCHENGYIPIAN,WENXIANZILIAOSUNSHICANZHONG。SHUJICHANSHENGCHONGZHUSHANGHAIDEZHUYAOYUANYINSHIKUFANGHUANJINGSHIYISHUJIHAICHONGHUODONGHEFANYAN,MEIYOUBIYAODEWENSHIDUKONGZHI。

ag竞咪厅  

火烬

 

4_7.jpg

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ag竞咪厅GUJISUNHUAIXIANXIANGZHONGDEYIZHONG。ZHUYAOTEZHENGWEIGUJISHANGCHUXIANCHENGDUBUDENGDEHUOJINHENJI,YOUYUDUOSHUHUOJINGUJICENGZAIMIEHUOSHIBEISHUIJIAOGUO,DADUOBANYOUMEIBIAN、ZHANLIAN、BIANXINGDENGSUNHUAITEZHENG(JIANTU4.7HE4.8)。

SHUIZI

ag竞咪厅SHUIZISHIGUJISUNHUAIXIANXIANGZHONGDEYIZHONG。ZHUYAOTEZHENGWEIGUJIBIAOMIANCHUXIANCHENGPIANDESHUIYIN,BUFENBANYOUZIJIYINHUAXIANXIANG(JIANTU4.9)。

 

4_9.jpg

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霉变

MEIBIANSHIZHIGUJISHOUCHAOHUOZAOSHUIJINYIHOU,FUZAIGUJISHANGDEMEIJUNBAOZIXUNSUFAYU,SHENGZHANGCHUJUNSI;SHUYEBINGBIANQUYUDEZHIZHANGQIANGDUHUIZHUJIANJIANGDIZHIZHIWANQUANSANGSHIDEGUOCHENG。MEIJUNFENMIWUZAISHUYESHANGXINGCHENGMEIBANBINGKESHISHUYEXIANGHUZHANLIAN,YANZHONGDEHUIBIANCHENGSHUZHUAN(JIANTU4.10HE4.11)。    

 

絮化

 

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4_13.jpg

 

 

XUHUASHIZHIGUJISIZHOUZHIZHANGXIANWEIPENGSONGCHENGMIANXUZHUANG,QICHANSHENGYUANYINSHISHUJIZAILIUTONGGUOCHENGZHONGSHOUDAOGUODUDEMOCASUOZHI(JIANTU4.12HE4.13)。XUHUAKESHISHUYEBINGBIANQUYUDEZHIZHANGQIANGDUJIANGDIZHIZHIQUANBUSANGSHI。

 

3.古籍保存中常见的食书害虫及常见防治虫菌的办法。

CHONGHAI、MEIJUNSHIWEIHAITUSHUDEYIGEZHONGYAOYINSU。MOUXIEHAICHONGNENGZHIJIEZHUSHITUSHUZAITI,SHITUSHUYANZHONGPOSUN。MEIJUNNENGGOUFENMIXIANWEISUMEI,JIASUZHIZHANGXIANWEISUDESHUIJIE。XIANWEISUMEINENGZAICHANGWENXIAQICUIHUAZUOYONG,QICUIHUAXIAOLVBIYIBANCUIHUAJIGAO10 WANSHENZHIYIBEI。MEIJUNZAIFANZHIGUOCHENGZHONGFENMICHUDAISEDEWUZHI,SHITUSHUBIAOMIANCHUXIANLEHUI、ZI、ZONG、HEDENGBUTONGYANSEDEBANDIAN,YINGXIANGLETUSHUDESHIYONG,YEJIANGDILEZHIZHANG、ZIJIDENAIJIUXING。

CHANGYONGDEDEFANGZHICHONGJUNDEFANGFAYOU: HUAXUEXIAODUSHACHONGMIEJUNFA,RUJIAQUAN、HUANYANGYIWAN、WULVFENNADENG;FUSHESHAJUNRUZIWAIXIAN、xSHEXIAN、rSHEXIAN、YUANHONGWAIXIAN、GU—60、WEIBO;CHOUYANGMIEMEIFA;CHONGDANSHACHONGDENGDENG。GUOJIATUSHUGUANCAIYONGDIWENLENGDONGFAJINXINGSHACHONG。SUOYOUDETUSHUZAIRUKUQIANDOUJIANGZAILINGXIA22℃~LINGXIA25℃XIALENGDONG7TIAN,CONGERDADAOSHACHONGDEMUDE。ZHEIYESHIMUQIANYIXIANGZUIJIANDAN、YOUXIAODETUSHUSHACHONGFANGFA。

XIAMIANJIESHAOCHANGJIANDETUSHUHAICHONGDEXINGTAITEZHENG(TUPU)。

①黑皮蠹

ag竞咪厅SHU  SHAOCHIMU,PIDUKE。

BIEMING HEIJIANJIECHONG,RIBENJIANJIECHONG,MAOZHANHEIPIDU。

ag竞咪厅FENBU QUANGUOGEDIJUNYOUFAXIAN。

WEIHAI SHIXINGFUZA,ZHUSHIPI、MAO、YUMAOJIQIZHIPIN,FULING、GUALOUPI、DAHUANGDENGZHONGYAOCAIJIYANYE、HUAXIANZHIPIN、SULIAOBIGAN、YOUCAIQIANGUAN、KUNCHONGBIAOBEN。

ag竞咪厅XINGTAITEZHENG CHENGCHONG: TIZHANG2.8-6HAOMI,KUAN1.5-2.8HAOMI。DAOLUANXING,CHIHESEZHIHEISE。QUANTIMISHENGHESEZHIHEISEXIMAO。TOUBUBIANYUANXING,KOUQICHIHESE,CHUJIAOGUNBANGZHUANG11JIE,MODUANSANJIEPENGDA,CICHONGMOJIEZHANGWEI9、10LIANGJIEZHANGDE1-1.5BEI;ERXIONGCHONGWEI3-4BEI。FUJIE5-5-5SHI。YOUCHONG: LAOSHUSHITIZHANG8-10HAOMI。YUANZHUIXING,CHUTOUWAI12JIE,DIYIJIEZUIDA,ZHIWEIDUANZHUJIANSUOXIAO,TIBIGUHUABUFENCHIHESE,JIEJIANRUBAISE,MISHENGCHIHESEMAO。WEIBUWUTUNCHA,YOUZHANGMAOYISHU。SHENGHUOXIXING YIBANYINIANFANZHIYIDAI。YOUCHONGYUEDONG、KANGHAN、NAIJI、NAIGANLIJUNQIANG,XICHAOSHI,YINHUANJINGTIAOJIANBUTONGERDUOCITUOPIZHANGDAHUOSUOXIAO。

ag竞咪厅FANGZHIFANGFA KEYONGLINHUALV、LIUXIANFUXUNZHENG。MAOZHIPINLEIYONGJINGNAI、ZHANGNAO、DUIWEIERLVHUABENFANGZHU。GONGYEKUNEIKEPENSAKESHIXINGLIULIULIUHUODIDIWEIFANGCHONG,HAIKECAIYONGCHONGDANJIANGYANGHUAFANGZHI。

②烟草甲

SHU SHAOCHIMU,QIEDUKE。

BIEMING KUDINGCHAZHUCHONG,YANCAOBIAOBENCHONG。

FENBU LIAONING、BEIJING、HEBEI、HENAN、SHANDONG、JIANGSU、SHANGHAI、ZHEJIANG、ANHUI、FUJIAN、GUANGDONG、GUANGXI、GUIZHOU、YUNNANDENGDI。

WEIHAI YANYE、JUANYAN、ZHONGYAOCAI、GANGUO、GANCAIDONGZHIWUBIAOBENJIPI、MAOZHIPIN、SI、MAOZHIPIN、TUSHU、DANGANDENG。

XINGTAITEZHENG CHENGCHONG: TIZHANG2.5-3HAOMI,TUOYUANXING。CHIHESE,MISHENGHUANGHESEXIMAO。TOUBUYINYUQIANXIONGXIA,NENGSHANGTAI。CHUJIAOJUCHIZHUANG11JIE。QIANXIONGBEIBANCONGBEIMIANKANWEIBANYUANXING,QIANXIONGHOUYUANYUSHAOCHIJIBUDENGKUAN。SHAOCHISHANGWUKEDIAN,FUJIE5-5-5SHI。 YOUCHONG: LAOSHUSHIYUE4HAOMI,SHENTIWANRUCXING。JINSIYUANTONGXING,YOUZHOUWEN,TOUHUANGHESE,QIYUJUNWEIRUBAISE。TIMISHENGXIERDUANDEBAISEXIMAO。LUAN: ZHANGYUE0.4-0.5HAOMI,ZHANGTUOYUANXING,DANHUANGBAISE,BIAOMIANGUANGHUA。 YONG: ZHANGYUE3HAOMI,KUAN1.5HAOMI,RUBAISE。

ag竞咪厅SHENGHUOXIXING YINIANFANZHISANZHILIUDAI。YIYOUCHONGNAIJIXINGQIANG,YOUJIASIXINGLAOSHUHOUZAIBEIHAIWUZHONGZUOBAISEBOJIANHUAYONG。

FANGZHIFANGFA PI、MAOZHIPIN、MAOZHIPINKEFANGJINGNAI、ZHANGNAO、DUIWEIERLVHUABENDENGFANGCHONG,KESHIYONGLINHUALV、XIUJIAWAN、LIUXIANFUDENGXUNSHAHUOCHONGDANJIANGYANGFANGFAFANGCHONG。

③花斑皮蠹

SHU SHAOCHIMU,PIDUKE。

FENBU JILIN、LIAONING、NEIMENGGU、SHANXI、HEBEI、BEIJING、TIANJIN、SHANXI、GANSU、XINJIANG、SHANDONG、JIANGSU、SHANGHAI、ZHEJIANG、FUJIAN、JIANGXI、HUNAN、HUBEI、SICHUANDENGDI。

WEIHAI SI、MAOZHIPIN、PIMAOZHIPIN、GANGUO。ZHONGYAOCAIYUZHIZI、PUHUANGDENGYIJISULIAOBIGAN、XIANGYA、QIANPI、KUNCHONGBIAOBEN、TUSHU、DANGANDENG。

XINGTAITEZHENG CHENGCHONG: TIZHANG2.4-4HAOMI,KUAN1.2-1.8HAOMI。TUOYUANXING,SHENHESEYOUGUANGZE。TISHANGMISHENGDANHEXIMAO,CHUJIAOGUNBANGZHUANG11JIE,MOSANJIEPENGDA,MOJIEWEIDI10JIEDE3BEIZHANG,SHAOCHIJINJIBU、ZHONGBUJIJINDUANBUGEYOUYITIAOXIANZHUDEHONGHESEHUABAN,BANSHANGSHENGYOUBAISEXIMAO。FUJIE5-5-5SHI。YOUCHONG: TIZHANG6-7HAOMI,FANGCHUIXING,HUANGHESE,JIEJIANDANHUANGSE,SHENGYOUXISHUDEHESECUDUANMAO,FUMOLIANGCEXIANGSHANGXIESHENGCHENGSHUHUANGHESEQIANGTOUZHUANGGANGMAO,WEIDUANYOUYISHUJIAOZHANGHESEMAO。 LUAN: ZHANGYUE0.7HAOMI,RUBAISE,SHENZANGXING。

SHENGHUOXIXING YINIANFANZHIYIZHIERDAI,YOUCHONGYUEDONG,XIHEIANCHAOSHI,NAIJINAIHANXINGJIQIANG,ZAIHUANJINGELIETIAOJIANXIAYOUCHONGQIKEDASANNIANYISHANG。

ag竞咪厅FANGZHIFANGFA MAOZHIPINZHIPINKEFANGJINGNAI、ZHANGNAO、DUIERLVBENFANGCHONG,KUNEIKEPENSALINDANFEN、XIUQINGJUZHI、DIDIWEIFANGCHONG,HAIKEYONGLINHUALV、LIUXIANFU、XIUJIAWANXUNZHENGSHACHONG。

④档案窃蠹 

a.jpg

b.jpg

SHU SHAOCHIMU,QIEDUKE。

BIEMING SHUQIEDU。

FENBU SICHUAN、GUANGDONG、ZHEJIANG、FUJIAN、JIANGSUDENGDI。

ag竞咪厅WEIHAI XIAOHUAXIANWEISU,WEIHAITUSHU、DANGAN、JIAOHEBAN、XIANWEIBAN、ZHIXIANG。

ag竞咪厅XINGTAITEZHENG CHENGCHONGZHAITUOYUANXING,LIHESE,TIZHANG2.2-2.5HAOMI。TOUBUQIUXING,CHUJIAOZONGHUANGSE,GONG9JIE,DUANBUSANJIEXIANGNEICEPENGDA,DUANBULVECHENGSANJIAOXING。DIYIJIEBIJIAOCUDA,DIERZHIDILIUJIEJIAOXIXIAO,DIQI、DIBAJIECHENGSANJIAOXING。QIANXIONGBEIBANCHENGFANGXING,KUANDAYUZHANG。QIANYUANLIANGCEXIANGXIAJUAN,QIANYUANCEJIAOXIAOYUHOUYUANCEJIAO。SHAOCHIJIHEQIANXIONGBEIBANKUANDUXIANGDENG,TICEYOUXIAZHAIDEYAODUN。BEIMIANTUQI,MIBEIXIBAIMAO。FUBUBEIMIANKEJIAN8JIE,FUMIANMINGXIANKEJIANDISAN、SI、WU、QIJIE,DILIUJIEFUPIANJIAODUAN。QIANYUANAOXIA,YINZANGYUDIWUFUPIANXIA。 LUANZHANGTUOYUANXING,ZHANGYUE0.3HAOMI,YIDUANJIAOXI,RUBAISE,BUTOUMING。YOUCHONGQICAOXING,RUBAISE。LAOSHUSHIZHANGYUE3.5HAOMI。BEIYOUSESHUMAO。TOUBUZONGHUANGSE,CHUJIAO3JIE,KOUQIZONGHESE,YOUXIAOYANYIDUI,CHUNJIHUXINGGUHUA,EDEKOUSHANGPIANBIANYUANQIANGLIEGUHUA,MEICEYOUYITOUMINGYUANBAN。XIONGBUSANJIEJIAOCUDA,QIANXIONGYOUWEIMINGXIAN。FUMOSHUJIEWANXIANGFUMIAN,MOJIEFUMIANYOULIANGWEIZUZHUANGTUQI。YONGRUBAISE,ZHANGYUE3HAOMI,KUANYUE1HAOMI。TOUXIANGXIA,QIANXIONGBEIBANHOUYUANJIAOXIANGLIANGCELONGQI,SHAOCHISHENDADISANFUJIEZHONGBU,FUBUMOJIELIANGCEYOUYIXIAOROUCI。

 TU5: a-DANGANQIEDUYOUCHONG;b-DANGANQIEDUCHENGCHONG。

ag竞咪厅SHENGHUOXIXING  CICHONGYINIANYIDAI,YIYOUCHONGZAICHONGDAONEIYUEDONG,YINIANSANYUEZHONGXUN(GUANGZHOU)HUOWUYUEZHONGXUN(CHENGDOU)LAOSHUYOUCHONGZAICHONGDAOZHONGHUAYONG,YONGQIYUEBANGEYUE,SIYUESHANGXUN(GUANGZHOU)HUOLIUYUESHANGXUN(CHENGDOU)CHUXIANCHENGCHONG,YISHANGWUBA、JIUSHIYUHUAZUIDUO。CHENGCHONGQIYIGEYUEZUOYOU,YIPAXINGWEIZHU,HENSHAOFEIXIANG,YOUQUANXING。YONGYUHUAHOU2-3TIANJINXINGJIAOPEI,SHANGWUBA、JIUSHIWEIZUIDUO,JIAOPEIZHANGDA2-3XIAOSHI,ZITAICHENGYIZIXING。JIAOPEIHOU3-5TIANCHANLUAN,LUANJIAOSAN,DUOCHANYUTUSHUDANGANZHOUZHE、ZHUANGDINGXIANDENGCHU。CHANLUANLIANG50-60LIZUOYOU,LUANQI10-20TIAN。FUHUADEYOUCHONGHUIZUANRUJISHENGNEIBUWEIHAI,KECHUANTOUZHENGJUANDEDANGANHEZHENGCEDETUSHU。CHONGDAOWEITIAOGOUZHUANG,KUANYUE2HAOMI。CICHONGZAIGUANGZHOUDIQUWUYUEDONGXIANXIANG。


⑤书虱

SHU NIECHONGMU,SHUSHIKE。

BIEMING MISHI。

FENBU HEBEI、BEIJING、HENAN、JIANGSU、SHANGHAI、ZHEJIANG、JIANGXI、HUBEI、HUNAN、GUANGDONG、GUANGXI、SICHUAN、SHANXI DENGDIJUNYOUFAXIAN。

WEIHAI PIBU、JIAOXIE、ZHIBAOZHUANG、BENCE、ZHIHUZHIPIN、ZHONGYAOCAIYIJIJUANYAN、GUSHU、DONGZHIWUBIAOBEN。

XINGTAITEXING CHENGCHONG: TIZHANG1-1.5HAOMI,BIANPINGZHANGTUOYUANXING,ROURUAN,HUANGBAISEHUOHUANGHESE。WUCHI,TOUDA,FUYANHEISE,CHUJIAOSIZHUANG,XIONGBUZHAIYUTOUBU,FUBUJIAOFEIDA,HOUZUTUIBIANPINGPENGDA。CHENGCHONGFUJIE3-3-3SHI,RUOCHONG2-2-2SHI。

SHENGHUOXIXING MEINIANFANZHILIUDAI。RUOCHONG、CHENGCHONGXINGHUOPO,PAXINGXUNSU,XISHENGHUOYUCHAOSHI、HEIANCHU。QISHENGMINGLIBUQIANG。

ag竞咪厅FANGZHIFANGFA KUFANGBAOCHIQINGJIEWEISHENG、GANZAOTONGFENG。KUNEIDUODI、ZOUDAO、QIANGJIAOKEPENSALINDANFEN、XIUQINGJUZHI、KESHIXINGLIULIULIU、RUJIERERSANHUODIDIWEIFANGCHONG。

 

Ⅲ、古籍的修复常识


1.古籍修复的原则

a. ZUISHAOGANYUYUANZE。JIUSHIZAIGUJIDEXIUFUZHONG,BINQICHUANTONGDEZHENGJUANZHENGYETUOBIAODEFANGFA,DUIWENXIANGEBUFENDECANPOXIANZHUANGZUOJUTIFENXI,DUIBUTONGQINGKUANGYUYIBUTONGCHULI。JINLIANGSHAODIZAIZANGPINSHANGTIANJIAXIUFUCAILIAO,BIMIANYINGUODUXIUFUERZAOCHENGDEBAOHUXINGPOHUAI,JINLIANGBAOLIUGUJIWENXIANDEGEZHONGYANJIUXINXI。

ag竞咪厅b.ZHENGJIURUJIUYUANZE。JIUSHIZAIXIUFUZHONGJINKENENGBAOCHIGUJIWENXIANDEYUANMAO,BAOLIUWENXIANDEZHUANGZHENFENGGE。ZHEILISUOWEIDE“ZHENGJIURUJIU”,BINGBUSHIQITUHUIFUGAIWENXIANMEIYOUSUNHUAIYIQIANDEYUANMAO,“RU”GUDAIDE“JIU”。GUDAIDENEIGE“JIU”,BUKENENGZAIHUIFU,ERSHIJINKENENGBAOCHIGAIWENXIANXIUFUQIANDEYUANMAO,JIUSHIZAIXIUFUGONGZUOZHONGJINSHIGAIWENXIANDECANPOBUFENDEDAOYANGHU,JUEBUSHIQITABUFENDEXIANYOUZHUANGKUANGCHANSHENGRENHEXINGTAISHANGDEGAIBIAN。

ag竞咪厅c.KENIXINGYUANZE。JIXIUFUCUOSHISHIKENIDE,KEZHONGFUDE。RUGUOJIANGLAIFAXIANYOUGENGKEXUEGENGSHIYIDEBAOHUXIUFUJISHU,SUISHIKEYIGENGHUANXIUFUCAILIAO,HUIDAOXIUFUQIANDEYUANLAIZHUANGTAI。TONGSHIKENIXINGYUANZEDUIYUagJINGMITINGGAIZHENGGONGZUOZHONGDESHIWUERJINLIANGBUSUNHAIGUJIFEICHANGBIYAO。

d.ZUIDAXIANDUBAOLIULISHIXINXIDEYUANZE。JIXIUFUZHONGSUOYONGDEXIUFUCAILIAO(ZHIZHANG、XIAN、YANLIAO、MODENG)BIXUYUYUANSHIWENJIANDECAILIAOYOUYIDINGDESECHA,BIMIANYUZANGPINBENSHENGUYOUDELISHIXINXIHUNXIAO。

 

2.修补古书用纸的选择

XUANQUXIUBUGUJIDEZHIZHANG,SHOUXIANYAOZHUYIZHIZHANGDESUANJIANDU,BUNENGYONGSUANXINGZHIZHANGQUXIUBUGUJI,YIMIANYINQIHUOJIASUGUJIZHIZHANGDESUANHUA;QICI,RUGUOXUANYONGJIUZHIXIUFUGUJI,YAOZHUYIJIUZHIDEZHIZHANGQIANGDUBUNENGTAIDI;TONGSHI,HAIYAOZHUYISUOXUANZHIZHANGDEXIANWEIZUCHENGYINGGAIYUGUJIDEZHIZHANGXIANGJIN,HOUBOXIANGJIN,YANSEXIANGSIDANBUNENGXIANGTONG。BUZHIDEXISHUIXINGYAOQIANG,CAIYIYUZHANHE。ZHIZHANGLIANWENDEKUANZHAIYEYAOXIANGJIN。JUTIXIUFUGONGZUOZHONGHAIYAOZHUYIBUZHIYUGUJIZHIZHANGDELIANWENFANGXIANGYAOYIZHI。ZONGZHIZHEIXIEDOUSHIYILE,CAINENGSHIXIUFUCHUZHIZHANGZHANJIEDELAOGUFUTIE,YUYUANLAIDESHUYEXIEDIAOZIRAN。


3.修复古籍用胶粘剂的选择

ag竞咪厅FANNENGGOUTONGGUOBIAOMIANJIECHUSHILIANGZHONGWUZHIZHANJIEZAIYIQIDEWUZHIDOUCHENGWEIJIAOZHANJIHUOZHANHECAILIAO。XIANZAISHICHANGSHANGCHUSHOUDEJIAOZHANJIZHONGLEIHENDUO,ANZHUYAOZHANXINGCHENGFENDELAIYUAN,KEFENWEITIANRANJIAOZHANJIJIRENGONGHECHENGJIAOZHANJILIANGDALEI。WEILEZHANGQIBAOCUNERBUFU,SHISHOUDEJIAOZHANJIYIBANDOUJIARULEDUIGUJIZHIZHANGYOUHAIDEHUAXUEWUZHI;MOUXIERENGONGHECHENGJIAOZHANJIWEILENENGZAIJIAODIWENDUHEHELISHIJIANNEININGGU,HANYOUJIAODUODESUANXINGWUZHI,JIAOZHANJIDESUANDUJIAOGAO。ERQIE,MOUXIERENGONGHECHENGJIAOZHANJIZHANJIEGUOCHENGBUKENI,ZHANJIELIHENQIANG,YIDANZHANSHANGHENNANZAIBAZHANJIEMIANFENKAI,CHUFEISUNHUAIYIGEJIECHUMIAN。ZHEIXIEDUIGUJIXIUFUDOUBUSHIYI。GUJIXIUFUSUOYONGDEJIAOZHANJI,YAOQIUWUSUANWUSE,BINGQIEZAIGUJIZHONGSHIYONGHOUJINGGUOZHANGQICUNFANGYEBUHUICHANSHENGSUANXINGWUZHIHEYOUSEWUZHI,ZHANJIELIYAODAXIAOSHIYI。JIAOZHANJIDEZHANJIELITAIDARONGYISHIZHANJIECHUZHIZHANGZHOUZHESHENZHIPOLIE;ZHANJIELITAIXIAO,JINGGUOYIDUANSHIJIANCUNFANGHOUZHANJIECHUYOUHUITUOJIAO;GUJIXIUFUSUOYONGDEJIAOZHANJIHAIYAOQIUZHANJIEGUOCHENGKENI,JIYONGYIDINGDEFANGFAKEYIJIANGZHANJIEDEGUJISHUYEHEBUZHIFENKAIERBUSUNHAIGUJISHUYE;BURONGYIFASHENGCHONGZHU,XINGZHIWENDING,ZAIGANZAODEZHUANGTAIXIAZHANJIELIDEBAOCHIQIYINGBUDIYUWENXIANDEBAOCUNQIXIAN。

ag竞咪厅GUOJIATUSHUGUANZHONGXIUFUGUJICHANGYONGDEJIAOZHANJISHIYONGQUCHUDANBAIZHIDEXIAOMAIDIANFENAOZHIDEJIANGHU,JUTISHIYONGSHIXIANAOZHICHOUJIANGHURANHOUZAIGENJUGUJIZHIZHANGDEHOUBO、ZHIXINGDEBUTONGDUISHUIDIAOPEICHENGBUTONGDEZHANDUDEXIJIANGHU,SUIDIAOSUIYONG。YEYOUDETUSHUGUANXIUFUPOSUNCHENGDUJIAOQINGDEGUJISHIYONGJIAJIXIANWEISUZUOJIAOZHANJI。TAMENDOUNENGJIAOHAODEMANZUXIUFUGUJIYONGJIAOZHANJIWUSE、KENI、WUSUAN、WENDING、ZHANJIELISHIYIDENGZHUYAOYAOQIU。

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